Hypertension


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It is difficult to overstate the impact of hypertension (HT) has on the health and wellness of the population in the United States and throughout the world. Mortality and morbidity is doubled for every 20 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (BP) above 115 mm Hg and for every 10 mm Hg in diastolic BP over 75 mm Hg (1). A reduction of just 10 mm Hg in systolic BP can reduce the incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) by 56% and 37% respectively (2).

The impact of HT on health is clearly demonstrated when one realizes that 29% of U.S. adults are hypertensive and an additional 28% are prehypertensive (3). Unfortunately only 57% of those with HT have controlled HT even with pharmacological intervention (4). These figures clearly reflect the large numbers of individuals at increased risk for stroke and CHD in the U.S. and the clear necessity for preventive measures.

1. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D. Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. Lancet 2001 Nov 17;358(9294):1682-6.

2. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sorlie P, Neaton J, et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990 Mar 31;335(8692):765-74.

3. Ostchega Y, Yoon SS, Hughes J, Louis T. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control —Continued Disparities in Adults: United States, 2005–2006. U S DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics 2008 January 31 [cited 2010 Jan 28]

4. Forman JP, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with incident hypertension in women. JAMA 2009 Jul 22;302(4):401-11.

Clinical Reviews

Essential Hypertension: Prevention



It is difficult to overstate the impact of hypertension (HT) has on the health and wellness of the population in the United States and throughout the world. Mortality and morbidity is doubled for every 20 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure (BP) above 115 mm Hg and for every 10 mm Hg in diastolic BP over 75 mm Hg. A reduction of just 10 mm Hg in systolic BP can reduce the incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) by 56% and 37% respectively.

Essential Hypertension: Diagnosis



Establishing a diagnosis of hypertension (HT) or pre-hypertension (PHT) would seem to be a relatively straight forward task. Although it is easy to take a blood pressure and check a chart, the measurement of blood pressure itself is fraught with potential for significant error. Both under measurement and over measurement can expose the patient to unnecessary risk.

Essential Hypertension: Therapy



Health related consequences of uncontrolled hypertension (HT) are severe. Controlling hypertension can reduce incidence of stroke up to 40%, myocardial infarction up to 50% and heart failure up to 50%. Unfortunately 43% of hypertensive patients have uncontrolled HT, even with pharmaceutical intervention. Medical guidelines in the US recommend advice on lifestyle changes in addition to pharmaceutical interventions. In reality lifestyle advice is far from universal and the guidelines do not include recommendations for other conservative interventions.

Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) Information

MeSH Term: Hypertension

Scope Note: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

MeSH Synonyms:
  • Hypertension
  • Blood Pressure, High
  • Blood Pressures, High
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Blood Pressures
Applicable MeSH Subheadings:
  • adverse effects
  • analysis
  • anatomy and histology
  • blood
  • blood supply
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • chemically induced
  • chemistry
  • classification
  • complications
  • congenital
  • cytology
  • diagnosis
  • diagnostic imaging
  • diet therapy
  • drug effects
  • drug therapy
  • economics
  • embryology
  • enzymology
  • epidemiology
  • ethnology
  • etiology
  • genetics
  • history
  • immunology
  • legislation and jurisprudence
  • metabolism
  • microbiology
  • mortality
  • nursing
  • organization and administration
  • parasitology
  • pathology
  • pharmacology
  • physiology
  • physiopathology
  • prevention and control
  • psychology
  • radiotherapy
  • rehabilitation
  • statistics and numerical data
  • surgery
  • therapeutic use
  • therapy
  • transmission
  • urine
  • veterinary
  • virology
See Related MeSH Terms:

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