About 12% of women in the U.S. will develop invasive breast cancer at some point in their life and experts project that some 40,000 women will die in 2011 from breast cancer. The biomedical community has directed an intense research effort to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for breast and other forms of cancer. During the first few months of 2011 there were numerous manuscripts published by the international research community that investigated the relationship between nutrition and breast cancer. This research shows there is a strong association between some vitamins and the ability to prevent breast cancer. In addition to prevention, there is also a strong association between nutrition and vitamin intake and the survival rates for those with cancer.
The latest evidence suggests that antioxidants like Vitamin A and D may contribute to breast cancer prevention. However, other research suggests that multivitamins do not contribute to prevention. The strongest evidence is related to intake and sustaining proper Vitamin D levels. The following are excerpts from four different studies related to Vitamin D and breast cancer.
You can find a previous article on the prevention of breast cancer here. Additional information on Vitamin D levels can be found here.
- “In the context of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level-cancer incidence relations, cancer rates could be reduced significantly in France if everyone obtained an additional 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D. Many other benefits of vitamin D exist as well.”
- “Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine.”
- “…these findings could warrant vitamin D supplementation for reducing breast cancer risk, particularly those with poor prognostic characteristics among premenopausal women.”
- “Vitamin D had a protective effect against breast cancer in premenopausal women of normal weight in subtropical Taiwan, especially an intake greater than 5 µg per day”
Note: These mini-reviews are designed as updates and direct the reader to the full text of current research. The abstracts presented here are no substitute for reading and critically reviewing the full text of the original research. Where permitted we will direct the reader to that full text.
Multivitamin use and breast cancer outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer: the Life After Cancer Epidemiology study.
]Breast Cancer Res Treat.
2011 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Kwan ML, Greenlee H, Lee VS, Castillo A, Gunderson EP, Habel LA, Kushi LH, Sweeney C, Tam EK, Caan BJ.Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA, 94612, USA, Marilyn.L.Kwan@kp.org.
Little is known about the relation of multivitamin use to breast cancer outcomes. 2,236 women diagnosed from 1997 to 2000 with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I = 1 cm, II, or IIIA) were enrolled about 2 years post-diagnosis, primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (83%). Multivitamin use pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis was assessed via mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were ascertained yearly by self-report and verified by medical record review. Delayed-entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval
s (CI), adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, and lifestyle factors. Overall, 54 and 72% of the cohort reported using multivitamins pre- and post-diagnosis, respectively. A total of 380 recurrences, 212 breast cancer deaths, and 396 total deaths were confirmed. Compared to never use, multivitamin use after diagnosis
was not associated with any outcome (recurrence HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.20; total mortality HR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19). Compared to never use, persistent use of multivitamins from pre- to post-diagnosis was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.06) and total mortality (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.12). The protective associations were limited to women who had been treated by radiation only (P for trend = 0.048 and 0.083 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively) and both radiation and chemotherapy (P for trend = 0.015 and 0.095 for recurrence and total mortality, respectively). In stratified analyses, women who consistently used multivitamins before and after diagnosis and ate more fruits/vegetables (P for trend = 0.008) and were more physically active (P for trend = 0.034) had better overall survival. Multivitamin use along with practice of other health-promoting behaviors may be beneficial in improving breast cancer outcomes in select groups of survivors.
Antioxidant vitamins and cytokines are altered in breast cancer.
]Eur J Cancer Prev.
2011 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Abranches MV, Santos Mendes MC, Ribeiro SM, Franceschini SC, de Paula SO, de Freitas RN, Peluzio MC.Department of General Biology, Laboratory of Immunology Department of Nutrition and Health, Laboratory of Nutrition Biochemistry, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa cDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, State University of Campinas, Campinas dDepartment of Clinical and Social Nutrition, Nutrition School, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil.
A case-control study
was conducted to assess the levels of a-tocopherol, retinol, and ß-carotene in different tissues and the genetic expression of inflammatory mediators in women with breast cancer. The study included 51 women divided into two groups: case (n=25) and benign breast disease (n=26). We evaluated the dietary intake of a-tocopherol, retinol, and ß-carotene and measured plasma and tissue concentrations of these compounds and the inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-10, and IFN?. The benign breast disease group showed greater ingestion of a-tocopherol (P=0.04) and ß-carotene (P=0.011). The concentration of tissue a-tocopherol was reduced in the case group (P=0.005). The expression of IL-10, IL-8, and IFN? increased by 231.0, 49.1, and 57.5%, respectively in the case group. The results show that antioxidant nutrients possibly exert biological effects in preventing breast cancer and the immune response is activated in the course of the disease, given the increased expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory compounds with the aid of food.
Dietary intake, supplement use, and survival among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer.
Saquib J, Rock CL, Natarajan L, Saquib N, Newman VA, Patterson RE, Thomson CA, Al-Delaimy WK, Pierce JP.Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Previous studies examining the relationship between micronutrient intakes and survival following diagnosis of breast cancer have reported mixed results. This may be partly due to considerable variance in amounts of micronutrients consumed from diet
and supplements across studies. Early-stage breast cancer survivors (N = 3081) completed four 24-h dietary and supplement recalls at the baseline assessment (1995 to 2000) and were followed for a median of 9.0 yr. Mean micronutrient intakes were compared to dietary reference intakes (DRI) to assess micronutrient adequacy for both users and nonusers of supplements. Cox regressions were performed to assess whether intakes of selected micronutrients were associated with all-cause mortality. Four hundred and twelve deaths occurred between baseline and August 2009. Among these women, more supplement users had adequate micronutrient intakes than nonusers for 15 out of 17 micronutrients. Less than 10% of supplement users (<2% of nonsupplement users) reported levels that exceeded the tolerable upper limit for each micronutrient except magnesium. After adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, and health status variables, micronutrient intakes were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Dietary supplements may improve overall micronutrient intakes of breast cancer survivors. However, vitamin and mineral intakes were not associated with all-cause mortality.
Pretreatment serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer prognostic characteristics: a case-control and a case-series study.
2011 Feb 28;6(2):e17251.
Yao S, Sucheston LE, Millen AE, Johnson CS, Trump DL, Nesline MK, Davis W, Hong CC, McCann SE, Hwang H, Kulkarni S, Edge SB, O'Connor TL, Ambrosone CB.Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, United States of America. email@example.comBACKGROUND:
Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity.METHODS AND FINDINGS:
In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p=0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p?=?0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR?=?0.21, 95% CI?=?0.08-0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR?=?0.36, 95% CI?=?0.22-0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses.CONCLUSION:
In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant vitamin D supplementation for reducing breast cancer risk, particularly those with poor prognostic characteristics among premenopausal women. Case-control analysis of breast cancer risk by high and low vitamin D levels
Season-standardized serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were stratified into above and below the median in healthy controls by menopausal status. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multinomial logistic regression with adjustment
for age at diagnosis and BMI, and presented in groups of tumor characteristics, where healthy controls were used as a referent group. Further adjustment for physical activity did not significantly change the results (data not shown). The lengths of horizontal lines are indicative of confidence intervals and the dots are indicative of odds ratios, with the corresponding odds ratios and 95% confidence interval given in numbers on the right of the Y-axis.
The effect of various vitamin D supplementation regimens in breast cancer patients.
]Breast Cancer Res Treat.
2011 May;127(1):171-7. Epub 2011 Mar 8.
Peppone LJ, Huston AJ, Reid ME, Rosier RN, Zakharia Y, Trump DL, Mustian KM, Janelsins MC, Purnell JQ, Morrow GR.Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 704, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vitamin D deficiency in the patients treated for breast cancer is associated with numerous adverse effects (bone loss, arthralgia, and falls). The first aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status, determined by 25-OH vitamin D levels, among women diagnosed with breast cancer according to demographic/clinical variables and bone mineral density (BMD). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily low-dose and weekly high-dose vitamin D supplementation on 25-OH vitamin D levels. This retrospective study included 224 women diagnosed with stage 0-III breast cancer who received treatment at the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Total 25-OH vitamin D levels (D(2) + D(3)) were determined at baseline for all participants. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25-OH vitamin D level < 20 ng/ml, insufficiency as 20-31 ng/ml, and sufficiency as =32 ng/ml. BMD was assessed during the period between 3 months before and 6 months following the baseline vitamin D assessment. Based on the participants' baseline levels, they received either no supplementation, low-dose supplementation (1,000 IU/day), or high-dose supplementation (=50,000 IU/week), and 25-OH vitamin D was reassessed in the following 8-16 weeks. Approximately 66.5% had deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Deficiency/insufficiency was more common among non-Caucasians, women with later-stage disease, and those who had previously received radiation therapy (P < 0.05). Breast cancer patients with deficient/insufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels had significantly lower lumbar BMD (P = 0.03). Compared to the no-supplementation group, weekly high-dose supplementation significantly increased 25-OH vitamin D levels, while daily low-dose supplementation did not significantly increase levels. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were common among women with breast cancer and associated with reduced BMD in the spine. Clinicians should carefully consider vitamin D supplementation regimens when treating vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in breast cancer patients.
Evaluation of dietary factors in relation to the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in breast cancer risk.
2011 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Yeon JY, Suh YJ, Kim SW, Baik HW, Sung CJ, Kim HS, Sung MK.Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.OBJECTIVE:
This study was conducted to evaluate blood concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related biomarkers as risk factors of breast cancer and to determine the relation between these markers and antioxidant nutrient intake.METHODS:
Study subjects were 134 patients with breast cancer and 149 controls. Total antioxidant capacity and concentrations of 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 of blood samples were determined. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake.RESULTS:
Patients with breast cancer had significantly higher blood levels of oxidative stress markers compared with control subjects. Plasma concentrations of IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with breast cancer compared with those of control subjects. In the pooled analysis, total antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased with increasing quartiles of carbohydrate intake but was increased with increasing quartiles of total vitamin A intake and vitamin C intake. In addition, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was decreased with increasing quartiles of vitamin A and ß-carotene. No significant association was found between nutrient intake and cytokine concentrations.CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation may be associated with the risk of breast cancer. Total vitamin A intake was negatively related to oxidative stresses, possibly modifying the risk of breast cancer.
Multivitamin use and the risk of mortality and cancer incidence: the multiethnic cohort study.
]Am J Epidemiol.
2011 Apr 15;173(8):906-14. Epub 2011 Feb 22.
Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN.
Although multivitamin/mineral supplements are commonly used in the United States, the efficacy of these supplements in preventing chronic disease or premature death is unclear. To assess the relation of multivitamin use with mortality and cancer, the authors prospectively examined these associations among 182,099 participants enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study between 1993 and 1996 in Hawaii and California. During an average 11 years of follow-up, 28,851 deaths were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models controlling for tobacco use and other potential confounders, no associations were found between multivitamin use and mortality from all causes (for users vs. nonusers: hazard ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.19 for men; hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.09 for women), cardiovascular diseases, or cancer. The findings did not vary across subgroups by ethnicity, age, body mass index, preexisting illness, single vitamin/mineral supplement use, hormone replacement therapy use, and smoking status. There also was no evidence indicating that multivitamin use was associated with risk of cancer, overall or at major sites, such as lung, colorectum, prostate, and breast. In conclusion, there was no clear decrease or increase in mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer and in morbidity from overall or major cancers among multivitamin supplement users.
Implications of cancer stem cell theory for cancer chemoprevention by natural dietary compounds.
]J Nutr Biochem.
2011 Feb 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Li Y, Wicha MS, Schwartz SJ, Sun D.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
The emergence of cancer stem cell theory has profound implications for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer stem cells give rise to the tumor bulk through continuous self-renewal and differentiation. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal is of greatest importance for discovery of anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells. Naturally occurring dietary compounds have received increasing attention in cancer chemoprevention. The anticancer effects of many dietary components have been reported for both in vitro and in vivo studies. Recently, a number of studies have found that several dietary compounds can directly or indirectly affect cancer stem cell self-renewal pathways. Herein we review the current knowledge of most common natural dietary compounds for their impact on self-renewal pathways and potential effect against cancer stem cells. Three pathways (Wnt/ß-catenin, Hedgehog and Notch) are summarized for their functions in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. The dietary compounds, including curcumin, sulforaphane, soy isoflavone, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, lycopene, piperine and vitamin D(3), are discussed for their direct or indirect effect on these self-renewal pathways. Curcumin and piperine have been demonstrated to target breast cancer stem cells. Sulforaphane has been reported to inhibit pancreatic tumor-initiating cells and breast cancer stem cells. These studies provide a basis for preclinical and clinical evaluation of dietary compounds for chemoprevention of cancer stem cells. This may enable us to discover more preventive strategies for cancer management by reducing cancer resistance and recurrence and improving patient survival.
Effect of vitamins C and E on antioxidant status of breast-cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
]J Clin Pharm Ther.
2011 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Suhail N, Bilal N, Khan HY, Hasan S, Sharma S, Khan F, Mansoor T, Banu N.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, A M University, Aligarh, UP, India Department of Biochemistry, Santosh Medical College, Santosh University, Ghaziabad, UP, India Department of Surgery, J.N. Medical College, A M University, Aligarh, UP, India.What is known and Objective:
Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generated by antineoplastic agents are prime suspects for the toxic side-effects of acute or chronic chemotherapy. The present study was undertaken to test whether vitamins C and E (VCE) supplementation protect against some of the harmful effects of commonly used anticancer drugs in breast-cancer patients. Methods:
In a randomized 5-month study, the activity of various antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase) and the levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were measured in forty untreated breast-cancer patients (stage II) and compared with those of healthy controls. The degree of DNA damage was also assessed in the peripheral lymphocytes of the patients by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. The untreated patients were then randomly assigned to either treatment with chemotherapy alone (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, every 3 weeks for six cycles) or to the same chemotherapy regimen supplemented with VCE (vitamin C 500 mg tablet and vitamin E 400 mg gelatin capsule). On completion of the treatments, both the groups were studied again for the levels of the markers measured prior to treatment. Results and Discussion:
The untreated group showed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0•001) and reduced glutathione (P < 0•001), and more extensive lipid peroxidation (P < 0•001) and DNA damage than healthy controls. Similar but less pronounced patterns were observed in the patients receiving chemotherapy alone. The group of patients receiving VCE supplementation had all the marker levels moving towards normal values. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the levels of reduced glutathione were significantly increased (P < 0•01) while, the levels of malondialdehyde and DNA damage were significantly (P < 0•01) reduced in the VCE supplemented group relative to those of patients receiving chemotherapy alone as well as relative to the pretreatment levels. What is new and Conclusion: Co-administration of VCE restored antioxidant status, lowered by the presence of breast-cancer and chemotherapy. DNA damage was also reduced by VCE. The results suggest that VCE should be useful in protecting against chemotherapy-related side-effects and a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of VCE in breast-cancer patients using clinical outcomes would be appropriate.
Vitamin D decreases risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women of normal weight in subtropical taiwan.
2011 Mar 5;21(2):87-94. Epub 2010 Dec 11.
Lee MS, Huang YC, Wahlqvist ML, Wu TY, Chou YC, Wu MH, Yu JC, Sun CA.School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. email@example.comBACKGROUND:
Evidence for an association between vitamin D status and breast cancer is now more convincing, but is uncertain in subtropical areas like Taiwan. This hospital-based case-control study examined the relationship of breast cancer with vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure.METHODS: A total of 200 incident breast cancer cases in a Taipei hospital were matched with 200 controls by date of interview and menopausal status. Information on risk factors for breast cancer was collected in face-to-face interviews and assessed with reference to vitamin D intake (foods and nutrients) and sunlight exposure. Vitamin D intake was divided into quartiles, and threshold effect was evaluated by comparing Q2-Q4 with Q1.RESULTS:
After controlling for age, education, parity, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, menopausal status, and daily sunlight exposure, the risk of breast cancer in participants with a dietary vitamin D intake greater than 5 µg per day was significantly lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.97) than that of participants with an intake less than 2 µg per day. In analysis stratified by menopausal status and BMI, both dietary vitamin D and total vitamin D intakes were associated with a protective effect among premenopausal women. There was a significant linear trend for breast cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake in premenopausal women (P = 0.02). In participants with a BMI lower than 24 kg/m(2) (ie, normal weight), dietary vitamin D intake was inversely related to breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.002), and a threshold effect was apparent (Q2-Q4 vs Q1: OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.90).CONCLUSIONS:
Vitamin D had a protective effect against breast cancer in premenopausal women of normal weight in subtropical Taiwan, especially an intake greater than 5 µg per day.
An ecological study of cancer incidence and mortality rates in France with respect to latitude, an index for vitamin D production.
Grant WB.Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC); San Francisco, CA USA.
France has unexplained large latitudinal variations in cancer incidence and mortality rates. Studies of cancer rate variations in several other countries, as well as in multicountry studies, have explained such variations primarily in terms of gradients in solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses and vitamin D production. To investigate this possibility in France, I obtained data on cancer incidence and mortality rates for 21 continental regions and used this information in regression analyses with respect to latitude. This study also used dietary data. Significant positive correlations with latitude emerged for breast, colorectal, esophageal (males), lung (males), prostate, both uterine cervix and uterine corpus, all and all less lung cancer. Although correlations with latitude were similar for males and females, the regression variance for all and all less lung cancer was about twice as high for males than for females. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates for females had little latitudinal gradient, indicating that smoking may have also contributed to the latitudinal gradients for males. On the basis of the available dietary factor, micro- and macronutrient data, dietary differences do not significantly affect geographical variation in cancer rates. These results are consistent with solar UVB's reducing the risk of cancer through production of vitamin D. In the context of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level-cancer incidence relations, cancer rates could be reduced significantly in France if everyone obtained an additional 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D. Many other benefits of vitamin D exist as well.
Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and breast cancer risk among chinese women.
]Am J Epidemiol.
2011 May 15;173(10):1171-82. Epub 2011 Mar 29.
Shrubsole MJ, Shu XO, Li HL, Cai H, Yang G, Gao YT, Gao J, Zheng W.
Methionine, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), niacin, and riboflavin intakes may be related to breast carcinogenesis. These associations may vary by breast cancer type. Using the prospective cohort Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997-2008) including 718 Chinese breast cancer cases, the authors evaluated baseline dietary intake of these factors and breast cancer risk and whether the associations varied by menopausal status and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. They estimated associations using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox proportional hazards regression models and stratified analyses by menopausal status and ER/PR status. Lowest quantile of intake was used as the comparison group. For postmenopausal women, dietary intakes of methionine and B vitamins were not associated with breast cancer risk. For premenopausal women, higher intake of folate was associated with decreased breast cancer risk (hazard ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 0.99 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake). Only niacin intake was associated with ER+/PR+ breast cancer risk (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 2.46; P for trend = 0.04 for the highest vs. lowest quartile of intake). Findings support the hypothesis that high folate intake may reduce breast cancer risk and that the association may vary by menopausal and ER/PR status.
Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?
]Food Nutr Res.
2010 Nov 10;54.
Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC).OBJECTIVE:
To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC.DESIGN:
A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries.RESULTS:
Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC.CONCLUSION:
Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk.
Early stage breast cancer and its association with diet and exercise-related perceptions and behaviors to prevent recurrence.
]Breast Cancer (Auckl).
2010 Nov 18;4:65-72.
Fink BN, Weiner JG, Jordan TR, Thompson AJ, Salvage TC, Coman M, Balls-Berry J.Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA.BACKGROUND:
The favorable prognosis for early stage breast cancer survivors may be a reason for the minimal research regarding their quality of life. Prior research has observed more long-term weight gain among early stage survivors compared to cancer-free women of a similar age. It would be useful to study survivors' perceptions and reported behaviors regarding diet and exercise
to see if there is a correlation with previous studies.METHODS:
A sample of 700 breast cancer survivors from Ohio and Michigan was randomly selected from the Northwest Ohio affiliate of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure mailing list and sent a survey for completion.RESULTS:
389 survivors completed the survey and among Stage 1 (50/197 = 25.4%) and Stage 2 survivors (24/105 = 22.9%), a small proportion had a positive correlation between self-reported dietary behaviors and their perceived benefits of eating fruits and vegetables. Similar correlations were observed between their self-reported exercise behaviors and their perceived benefits of exercise (Stage 1: 36/197 = 18.3%, Stage 2: 18/105 = 17.1%).CONCLUSIONS:
Regardless of stage, a small proportion of survivors' self-reported dietary and exercise behaviors match their perceived benefits of diet and exercise. Factors such as access, motivation, and lack of co-morbidities among early stage survivors may prevent them from living healthier post-diagnosis. More thorough dietary and clinical measurements will provide greater certainty. Thus, innovative, sustainable programs must be accessible and provide motivation and social support from family, friends, and other survivors to truly improve quality of life.